Athens is the capital of Greece (formally the Hellenic Republic). With a metro population of about three million, it is also the country’s largest city. Yet Classical Athens is less than a mile in diameter. Inside this compact footprint are countless historic landmarks and ruins awaiting your exploration. The most famous is the Parthenon on the Acropolis. Collectively, these archeological sites trace thousands of years of Athenian culture. This travel guide describes the major antiquities to see in the Upper City (Acropolis) and the Lower City surrounded by the Themistoclean Wall in the 5th century BC.