An essential element of Roman culture was the bathhouse. They were the epicenter of social life and relaxation. The complexes tended to be large and lavish. The facilities included exercise rooms, a large open-air pool plus hot (caldarium), warm (tepidarium) and cool (frigidarium) rooms with plunge baths. Slaves regulated temperatures by monitoring hot air and water generated from a furnace and delivered through clay pipes (hypocaust system). Private cabins like this were reserved for messages and physical treatments. There was also a library, a gathering hall and outdoor garden. This thermae in Ephesus was constructed during the 1st century. Extensive renovations in the 4th century were funded by a wealthy philanthropist. Since then, the facilities bore her name: Scholastica Baths.