On June 3, 1608, Samuel de Champlain landed here and planted a fleur-de-lys flag for New France. Before the devastating winter set in, he and his men built wooden structures to create a fur trading post. He called the settlement Habitation de Québec. This is the birthplace of Québec City. The cobblestone square is small yet contains the most 17th and 18th century buildings in North America. Many of them were built after a fire in 1682. On the left is a bust of Louis XIV (a 1931 replica). The King of France financed Champlain’s expedition. When the sculpture arrived in 1686, the marketplace was renamed Place-Royale. Among the historical gems here is the Notre-Dame-des-Victoires. Our Lady of Victories church was founded in 1687, finished in 1723 and rebuilt in 1816 after being destroyed by the British in 1759.