During the Hague Convention of 1899, Russian Emperor Nicholas II proposed numerous international laws regarding warfare. The Permanent Court of Arbitration was also established to resolve disputes among member states. In 1913, the Peace Palace (Vredespaleis) was constructed to house the PCA. Also inside are the United Nations International Court of Justice (World Court) and the Library of International Law. The Peace Palace was funded by Andrew Carnegie and is still managed by the Carnegie Foundation. Architect Louis Cordonnier designed the impressive Neo-Renaissance building. The elaborate garden in front was the work of Thomas Mawson.