Much of present-day Israel became a Roman province named Judea (also spelled Judaea) in 6 AD. Jews resented their loss of independence and religious freedom plus the heavy taxation. Their first riot against Rome’s oppression occurred at Caesarea in 66 AD. This event emboldened Jewish rebels to attack Romans across the province, resulting in the First Jewish-Roman War (66 – 73). Rome quickly responded. Emperor Nero sent Vespasian and his son Titus (both future Roman emperors) to crush the uprising. Their armies methodically slaughtered Jewish people at Caesarea and won back control of the northern province. In 70 AD, the Romans attacked Jerusalem, destroyed the sacred Second Temple, burned the city, killed over one million citizens and enslaved nearly 100,000. Afterwards, the Romans continued finding and destroying pockets of resistance across Judea. By 73 AD, only one Jewish stronghold remained: Masada. Crushing them would mean the end of the Great Jewish Revolt.