During the Middle Ages, European cities were commonly encircled by high walls. Munich was no exception. The first wall was constructed in 1175 by Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria (1156 to 1180). When the defense became inadequate, new walls were built from 1285 through 1347. They were significantly fortified during the early 17th century. By the 18th century, the walls had outlived their value and were torn down. Fortunately, three of the original eight tors (German for gates) were spared. One of them is Isar, named after the river. Isartor was built in 1337 and has been restored a couple of times. The orange glow on the central tower of Isartor is curtesy of the setting sun.