The British liked sending their prisoners as far away as possible. During the early 17th century, they transported convicts to the American Colonies. After the outbreak of the American Revolution, they began shipping convicts to today’s Sydney aboard the First Fleet in 1788. Soon other prison colonies were established in Australia. One of them was at Sullivan’s Cove (today’s Hobart) in 1804. In 1820, the Macquarie Harbour penitentiary was founded in western Tasmania. Just as the exporting of prisoners peaked in 1830, a site was needed for the worst criminals. That year, Port Arthur was created at a small timber station. It replaced Macquarie Harbour and received the hardest criminals from the United Kingdom until 1877. By the time the British stopped transferring criminals in 1868, over 166,000 prisoners had been sent to Australia.