Across the street from Circus Maximus and next to the Municipal Rose Garden of Rome is the Giuseppe Mazzini Monument. During the mid-19th century, Giuseppe Mazzini was an outspoken – some said radical – revolutionary. He opposed Italy’s structure of Papal states ruled by the pope and advocated for a single Italy as a republican nation. His efforts were plagued by failures, criminal convictions and exiles. Yet his concepts led to the Italian unification first as the Roman Republic (1849) and then as the Kingdom of Italy (1861). The monument by sculptor was Ettore Ferrari was erected in 1949.