Masada lay fallow for centuries until rediscovered by two different teams in the early 19th century. Another hundred years would pass before Shmarya Gutman arrived in 1932. The Israeli archeologist had a passion for uncovering secrets of the First Jewish-Roman War. He also explored the rebel stronghold at Gamla from 1976 until 1988. Another famous archeologist was Yigael Yadin. After resigning as Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, Yadin led several excavations at Masada in the 1960s. This project entailed thousands of volunteers. During an excavation in 2017 by the Tel Aviv University, evidence was uncovered that war refugees lived alongside the rebels prior to the siege in 73 AD. Notice the black line in the wall. You will see these throughout your tour of Masada. Below the line signifies the condition of a structure when discovered by archeologists. Above the line is the result of partial restoration.