Evidence suggests this former volcanic plug was inhabited back in the Bronze Age. The oldest structure within the current fortress was commissioned by King David I of Scotland, who reigned from 1124 until 1153. He built St. Margaret’s Chapel in 1130 as a tribute to his mother. It still stands within this enormous fortress. The castle was expanded and rebuilt numerous times while serving as the residence for monarchs until 1633. During its history, it was attacked over 25 times and occasionally succumbed during battle. Portions of the fort were a prison until 1814. It also was as a military garrison until 1923 yet remains an active military base. This southwestern view shows (from left to right) the Hospital, Butts Battery, National War Museum and the New Barracks which also contains the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Regimental Museum.