In 1160, Bishop Arnold ordered a replacement to the adjacent Church of St. Rule. The new cathedral required about 150 years to construct. When it was consecrated in 1318, it had six turrets and a central tower. The cathedral was so prominent that in 1472, the bishop of St Andrews became an archbishop and Scotland’s spiritual leader. In 1559, during the Scottish Reformation, the building was attacked and finally abandoned two years later. The most dramatic remnants of St Andrews Cathedral are the twin spires of the east façade. They are a testament to the Roman Catholic church’s former grandeur.