While the French occupied most of Spain during the Napoleonic Wars (1803 – 1815), representatives from Spanish provinces met in Cádiz to draft language regarding democracy. The Cádiz Cortes ratified the Spanish Constitution of 1812. The document described the tenets for freedom, a national sovereignty and the creation of a constitutional monarchy. The declaration was abolished by Ferdinand VII of Spain. Six additional constitutions would be drafted and suppressed. Finally, many of the principals described in 1812 became the current Spanish Constitution when it was established in 1978. This monument in Plaza de España commemorates the founding fathers of 1812. It was designed by architect Modesto Lopez Otero. The sculptor was Aniceto Marinas.