Edward I was the King of England from 1272 until 1307. In December of 1282, his English troops defeated a Welsh rebellion and severed the head of the Prince of Wales, Llwelyn ap Gruffudd. Then Edward ordered a massive fortress be built to defend against future attacks in Caernarfonshire. However, it was reclaimed by Madog ap Llywelyn after he sacked the town in 1294. The following year, King Edward regained control and construction continued through 1330 (it was never finished). Towards the late 15th century, its strategic importance diminished and its condition languished. The features shown on this southern profile are (l to r): the Eagle Tower, Queen’s Tower, Chamberlain Tower, Black Tower, Cistern Tower and the Queen’s Gate. In the foreground is the small boat harbor of Afon Seiont, a tidal river flowing along the edge of this medieval town. Notice how mud flats appear at low tide.