The largest of the seven Ionian Islands is Kefalonia. It is sometimes spelled Kephalonia or Cephalonia. This archipelago was settled over 11,000 years ago and has been ruled by several nations including the Romans, Venetians, French and British before becoming part of Greece in 1864. This island’s largest city and the municipality’s capital is Argostoli. However, “largest” is a relative term because the entire population of Kefalonia is only about 36,000 residents.