The first stronghold in Ronda – the Castle of Laurel – was built by the Romans in the 3rd century B.C. After the city was conquered by Abbad II al-Mu’tadid in 1065, the Muslims constructed their fortified palace called Alcazaba. It suffered major attacks by Ferdinand II’s troops in 1485 and then by Napoleon’s French army in 1812. Most is now in ruins. Yet the Alcazaba walls along the northeast section of Ronda remain impressive.