London, England

London, England, is always listed among the top destinations in the world. For countless good reasons. Enjoy your pictorial tour of the capital of the United Kingdom. And wave to Queen Elizabeth II and the rest of the Royal Family as they pass in their Royal carriages.

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1 River Thames Landmarks in London, England

This view of the River Thames displays some of London’s iconic landmarks. The Palace of Westminster – also called the Houses of Parliament – stands on the North Bank. Seen here are its five towers: the Victoria and Octagonal Towers are on the left. In the center is the Elizabeth Tower housing Big Ben. Along the waterfront are the Chancellor’s and Speaker’s Towers. Spanning the river is the Westminster Bridge leading to the London Eye on the South Bank.

Lambeth Bridge, London SE1 7SG, UK

2 Victoria Tower at Palace of Westminster in London, England

This was the King’s Tower when Charles Barry’s Perpendicular Gothic design was added to the Palace of Winchester in 1855. In 1887, it was renamed the Victoria Tower in honor of Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee. The structure houses the Parliamentary Achieves. Notice the Union Flag above its 14th floor. This is replaced with the Royal Standard when the Queen is inside. On the right is the Buxton Memorial Fountain. The tribute’s namesake is Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton. While a member of Parliament, he led the abolition of slavery in 1833. The fountain is located in the Victoria Tower Gardens, a park adjacent to the River Thames.

9748 Abingdon St, Westminster, London SW1P 3JY, UK

3 Victoria Tower’s Tympanum at Palace of Westminster in London, England

This is the Sovereign’s Entrance to the Palace of Westminster. The 50 foot arch at the base of Victoria Tower is tall enough to accommodate the monarch’s carriage when arriving for the State Opening of Parliament. Above the tympanum is a panel of life-size statues. In the center is Queen Victoria. Flanking Her Majesty are the patron saints of England (St. George), Scotland (St. Andrews) and Ireland (St. Patrick).

Palace of Westminster, Westminster, London SW1A 2PW, UK

4 Palace of Westminster and Big Ben History in London, England

The first Palace of Westminster was built in 1016 as the Royal residence for English monarchs. After a fire in 1512, it was restored for the Houses of Parliament, a role it has maintained for over 500 years. Another major fire in 1834 required a second reconstruction managed by the architect Charles Barry. His Perpendicular Gothic design is 873 feet long and contains over 1,100 rooms. Yet the most iconic section of this seat of British politics is the Clock Tower, known affectionately as Big Ben. The golden limestone, Gothic Revival tower by Augustus Pugin stands 315 feet. Since 1987, the Palace of Westminster has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Palace of Westminster, Westminster, London SW1A 2PW, UK

5 Big Ben Close Up at Palace of Westminster in London, England

This four-faced tower was originally called the Clock Tower or St Stephen’s Tower. That changed in 2012 when the Palace of Westminster’s famous feature was renamed Elizabeth Tower to celebrate Queen Elizabeth II’s 60th anniversary on the throne. Regardless of those official names, it will always remain Big Ben. The clock’s mechanism was cutting-edge technology when it was finished in 1859. However, the speed of its 13 foot pendulum is still regulated by adding or subtracting from a stack of British pennies. Every tourist to London will snap at least one photo of this landmark. Then they are disappointed to learn it requires U.K. citizenship and a signed disclaimer before climbing the 334 stairs to the pinnacle.

67 Bridge St, Westminster, London SW1A 2PW, UK

6 Winston Churchill Statue in London, England

United Kingdom’s most famous Prime Minister is Sir Winston Churchill. While in office from 1940 until 1945, he led Britain’s resistance against Nazi Germany until the end of World War II. But his very long political career began in 1900 as a Member of Parliament. He was also the Secretary of State for War and Air after WWI, the Minister of Defence in the early 1950’s and the Prime Minister again from 1951 – 1955. This bronze statue by sculptor Ivor Roberts-Jones was erected in Parliament Square in 1973. It is fitting Churchill’s likeness watches over the Houses of Parliament and Big Ben.

Parliament Square, Westminster, London SW1P 3JX, UK

Household Calvary at Opening of Parliament Procession in London, England

Each spring, the Parliament of the United Kingdom is opened by the reigning monarch who outlines policy direction and a legislative agenda to the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The tradition dates back to the 16th century. This major event is preceded by a royal procession from Buckingham Palace to the Palace of Westminster. The gala parade is escorted by the Household Cavalry and Foot Guards dressed in blazing red ceremonial uniforms and often wearing the traditional, tall bearskin hats.

Prince Charles in Opening of Parliament Procession in London, England

Charles, the Prince of Wales, is the first member of royalty in the State Opening of Parliament Procession. He is the oldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and the second oldest heir apparent to the throne in England’s history. The Prince is waving from inside the Irish State Coach. The horse-drawn carriage was built by John Hutton & Sons in 1851. It was the favorite coach of Queen Victoria from 1861 until she died in 1901. It also transported Queen Elizabeth II for most of her reign. Since 2014, it has been reserved for the Prince of Wales.

7 Queen Elizabeth in Opening of Parliament Procession in London, England

Elizabeth II ascended to the throne in 1952. She is the Queen of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and a dozen other countries. In her role as Head of State, Her Majesty delivers the annual Queen’s Speech at the State Opening of Parliament ceremony inside the Palace of Winchester. She and her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, arrive in the Diamond Jubilee State Coach. The 18 foot carriage was built by W. J. Frecklington in 2010 and put in service in 2014. It is drawn by six Windsor Grey horses. Notice her crown. There are 1,333 diamonds weighing 320 carats in the George IV State Diadem. These royal jewels have been worn by every queen since 1820.

Palace of Westminster, Westminster, London SW1A 2PW, UK

Royal Household at Opening of Parliament Procession in London, England

In addition to Queen Elizabeth and the immediate Royal Family, members of the Royal Household are also escorted to the Palace of Westminster for the State Opening of Parliament. In this carriage is Princess Alexandra. The Honourable Lady Ogilvy is a granddaughter of King George IV and Queen Mary plus the widow of Sir Angus Ogilvy. Sitting next to her is Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall. In 2005, the former Camilla Parker Bowles married Prince Charles, the heir apparent to the English crown.

8 Henry VII Chapel at Westminster Abbey in London, England

Attached at the east end of the Westminster Abbey facing the Palace of Westminster is the Henry VII Chapel. The Perpendicular Gothic design is spectacular. The Lady Chapel was commissioned by the king in 1503 to honor the Blessed Virgin Mary, his uncle (Henry VI) and as a mausoleum for himself, his wife Elizabeth of York and his family. Over a dozen monarchs are entombed beneath a canopy of a pendant fan vault ceiling, one of the world’s finest.

9748 Abingdon St, Westminster, London SW1P 3JY, UK

9 Westminster Abbey in London, England

Saint Dunstan, a former Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury, founded a Benedictine monastery near the River Thames in 960 as part of his reforms of the English Church. St Peter’s Abbey was rebuilt in 1090. In 1245, King Henry III commissioned the current church. Construction of the Anglo-French Gothic structure required 272 years. During the mid-16th century, Henry VIII dissolved and mostly destroyed all Catholic monasteries across Great Britain. Fortunately, he spared this building by creating the Diocese of Winchester in 1540 and making this its Anglican cathedral. Twenty years later, it became the Collegiate Church of St Peter responsible only to the Sovereign (monarch). The 225 foot, twin towers gracing the western façade of Westminster Abbey were created by Nicholas Hawksmoor and finished in 1725 and 1745. Their Gothic Revival design was crafted from white stone from the Isle of Portland.

2 Victoria St, Westminster, London SW1H 0NB, UK

10 Martyrs Statues at Westminster Abbey in London, England

Above the Great West Door of the Westminster Abbey are the Ten Christian Martyrs of the 20th century. These victims of religious and political persecution represent every continent. The figure in the middle is Martin Luther King Jr. The tribute was unveiled in the presence of Queen Elizabeth II and her husband, The Duke of Edinburgh, in 1998. Apparently, these niches had been empty since the Middle Ages. Andrew Tanser sculpted the statues from French Richemont limestone. The ensemble is an impressive entry into the UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Broad Sanctuary, Westminster, London SW1P 3BD, UK

11 The Red Lion in London, England

The address of 48 Parliament Street has had an illustrious history. Dating back to 1434, there was a public house here called the Hopping Hall. During the 19th century, a previous Red Lion pub hosted famous guests such as Charles Dickens. This building was constructed in 1890. The Red Lion’s proximity to 10 Downing Street made this a popular bar for prime ministers and other British politicians. The highly-rated restaurant and tavern also serves plenty of tourists after they finish gawking at the Houses of Parliament and Big Ben. It is owned by Fuller’s Brewery which was established in 1845.

48 Parliament St, Westminster, London SW1A 2NH, UK

12 Buckingham Palace Front Gate in London, England

Behind this front gate emblazoned with the United Kingdom’s Royal coat of arms is Buckingham Palace. It was constructed in 1703 as the home for John Sheffield, the Duke of Buckingham. Over 100 years later, King George IV hired architect John Nash to convert Buckingham House into a palace. Victoria was the first monarch to make it her official residence after becoming queen in 1837. Buckingham Palace’s 775 rooms and 830,000 square feet of floor space accommodate Queen Elizabeth II, members of the Royal Family and Her Majesty’s administrative staff. A major tourist attraction is the changing of the guard. The 45-minute ceremony starts about 11:30 but does not occur every day.

Buckingham Palace, London SW1A 1AA, UK

13 Victoria Memorial at Buckingham Palace in London, England

In 1911, Sir Aston Webb designed an elaborate approach to Buckingham Palace called The Mall. The epicenter of the grand entrance is the Victoria Memorial by Sir Aston Webb. It honors Queen Victoria who died in 1901 after a 63-year reign. At the top of the 82-foot tribute is a gilded statue of Winged Victory. Beneath this Greek goddess are an ensemble of marble sculptures including two of the queen plus eagles and allegories for Truth and Justice. Surrounding these are four bronze statues symbolizing Agriculture, Manufacture, Progress and Peace.

42 The Mall, London SW1A 1AA, UK

14 Yeoman Warders at Buckingham Palace in London, England

Yeoman Warders were established in 1485 by King Henry VIII to protect the Tower of London. Over the centuries, their role evolved until now they are ceremonial guards at the Her Majesty’s Royal Palace plus tour guides at the Tower of London. Today, they number 36 men and one woman. In order to qualify, they must be retired from the Armed Forces as non-commissioned officers and served for at least 22 years. These Beefeaters are wearing the red and gold Tudor State Dress uniform reserved for formal state events. The occasion on this day was one of the three summer gala garden parties hosted by Queen Elizabeth at Buckingham Palace.

Buckingham Palace, London SW1A 1AA, UK

15 Westminster Bridge and Palace of Westminster in London, England

London’s oldest bridge crossing the River Thames shares the name of the palace, cathedral and the one-mile city or borough where it is located: Westminster. The seven-arch, wrought-iron design was created by architect Thomas Page. The 820 foot span connecting Lambeth on the South Bank and central London on the North Bank was completed in 1862. You may wonder why it is painted green. It matches the color of the seats in the House of Chambers inside the Palace of Westminster seen in the background. This view of the Houses of Parliament is known as the River Front Façade.

County Hall, Belvedere Rd, Lambeth, London SE1 7GP, UK

16 London Eye in London, England

The London Eye resembles a 443 foot, steel bicycle wheel. The attraction delights passengers with incredible views of the River Thames, Westminster Palace, Big Ben and other London landmarks. Up to 25 people can stand or sit within each of the 32 capsules – one for each London borough – during the 30 minute ride. The £70 million Ferris wheel has had several corporate sponsors since opening in 2000. Beginning in 2014, it was branded as the Coca-cola London Eye. The ride is located near the Westminster Bridge on the river’s South Bank.

Lambeth, London SE1 7PB, UK

17 Carousel among South Bank Attractions in London, England

Families love bringing their children to London’s South Bank near the Westminster Bridge. This riverside walk has a carnival atmosphere with plenty of entertainment options. Attractions include Shrek’s Adventure, The London Dungeon, an arcade called Namco Funscape, the Sea Life London Aquarium, the London Eye (giant Ferris wheel), Jubilee Gardens (public park) and this magical carousel. Although this ride was manufactured in 1999 by the Mardi Gras Company, it replicates the fun of an English Carousel from the 1951 Festival of Britain at Battersea Park. After the kids have mounted the horses and the music starts, American parents will soon notice that merry-go-rounds in the U.K. follow a clockwise rotation versus the traditional counterclockwise direction in the U.S.

30 The Queen's Walk, Lambeth, London SE1 8XX, UK

18 Shakespeare’s Globe in London, England

William Shakespeare began writing for London’s theaters at the end of the 16th century. In 1599, he along with actors in the Lord Chamberlain’s Men built The Globe along the South Bank of the River Thames. Shakespeare’s famous plays debuted on this stage. The theater burned during a performance of Henry VIII in 1613, the same year when Shakespeare wrote his last play, The Two Noble Kingsmen. One year later, the theater reopened. In 1642, The Globe was forced by the Puritans to close along with all of London’s playhouses. In 1997, a replica of the original Elizabethan theater was constructed called Shakespeare’s Globe.

38 Bankside, London SE1, UK

19 The Anchor Pub in London, England

The oldest pub in the Bankside district located along the River Thames is The Anchor. The first tavern opened in 1615 when this area of Southwark was the theater district. The Anchor Bankside was rebuilt after its predecessor was destroyed during the Great Fire of London in 1666. It also underwent a major refurbishment during the 19th century and again in 2008. The buildings behind the pub are where the Anchor Brewery was established in 1616. During the first half of the 19th century, it was London’s top brewery and one of the world’s largest.

34 Park St, London SE1 9EF, UK

20 Ruins of Winchester Palace in London, England

While Henry of Blois was the Bishop of Winchester from 1129 until 1171, he used his extraordinary riches as a prolific builder of fine architecture. Among his projects was the construction of Winchester Palace for his residence. After a devastating fire in 1814, all that remained was the wall of the Great Hall with its rose window.

Pickfords Lane, Winchester Palace, Southwark SE1 9DN, UK

21 Golden Hinde II Ship in London, England

Sir Francis Drake was a 16th century sea captain who was considered a hero in England and a pirate in Spain. As a privateer, he consistently attacked Spanish fleets and plundered their riches for Queen Elizabeth I. In 1577, he set sail in the Golden Hind (initially named the Pelican) on a voyage ending in 1580 after circumnavigating the world. His famous, three-mast galleon was reproduced in 1973. The 121 foot Golden Hinde II is a tourist attraction and educational museum berthed at the St Mary Overie Dock along the River Thames. Yet it is also a real ship, claiming to have sailed over 140,000 miles.

1 Pickfords Wharf, Clink St, London SE1 9DG, UK

22 Tower Bridge in London, England

The Romans were the first to construct a bridge crossing the River Thames during the 1st century. Two former spans were called the London Bridge. The medieval version was constructed in 1209. The second was finished in 1831. When it came time for a replacement, it was sold to Robert McCulloch in 1968 and reassembled in Arizona. The iconic Tower Bridge was constructed downstream in 1894. The length is 801 feet and the twin towers are 213 feet tall. Two center bascules can be raised in five minutes to allow the passage of tall ships. In the elevated walkway and beneath the facade of Portland stone and Cornish granite are 11,000 tons of steel.

Tower Bridge, Tower Bridge Rd, St Katharine's & Wapping, London E1W 1LD, UK

23 South Bank Glass Landmarks in London, England

There is a delightful promenade on both sides of the Tower Bridge and in front of the Tower of London. These benches provide front row seating to admire glass landmarks on the South Bank of the River Thames in the Southwark Borough. The spherical building on the left, created by architect Norman Foster, is City Hall. The offices for the mayor, the London Assembly and the Greater London Authority opened in 2002. In the center is More London. This complex includes offices, stores, restaurants and an amphitheater named The Scoop. On the right is The Shard. When construction ended in 2012, the skyscraper became the United Kingdom’s tallest at 1,016 feet. Among its 95 floors designed by Renzo Piano are retailers, offices and residential units. Tourists are delighted by the observation decks called The View from the Shard.

35 Tower Hill, London EC3N 4DR, UK

24 White Tower at Tower of London in London, England

In a city filled with historic landmarks, the Tower of London is among its most famous. On the right is the White Tower. This 89 foot tall, central keep was ordered by William the Conqueror. Construction of the Norman castle using Caen Stone and Kentish Ragstone began around 1078. The first phase of the donjon was finished at the end of the century. After Henry III ordered it to be whitewashed in 1240, it became known as the White Tower. Over the millenniums, additional buildings were added to the 12-acre royal residence. An example is the Beauchamp Tower on the left. King Edward I ordered architect Master James of St George to build it in the late 13th century. Within its walls were numerous famous prisoners including Anne Boleyn – the second wife of Henry VIII – and Lady Jane Grey. Both queens were beheaded for treason during the first half of the 16th century. In the foreground are the casements. This tall curtainwall forming the outer ward is surrounded by a moat.

1 Tower Hill Terrace, London EC3N 4EE, UK

25 24-Pounder Cannon at Tower of London in London, England

There are so many things to see and do at the Tower of London. That is why 2.8 million people annually visit this UNESCO World Heritage Site. Among the highlights are marveling at the Crown Jewels, admiring the 21 towers and learning about the fortress’ nearly 1,000 years of history. Discover the legend requiring six ravens be maintained within the castle complex. Explore the Fusilier Museum’s displays on the famous infantry regiment. Walk along the 13th century walls plus cringe at the torture chamber exhibits at Wakefield Tower. Take time to read the signs on artifacts such as this bronze, 24-pounder canon made in 1607. First time visitors are easily overwhelmed. So consider taking a one-hour tour offered by Yeoman Warders, better known as Beefeaters.

35 Tower Hill, London EC3N 4DR, UK

26 Crown Jewel House Sentry at Tower of London in London, England

The Crown Jewels of England were first maintained by a keeper in 1207 and have been guarded in the Tower of London since 1643. Outside the Jewel House in Waterloo Barracks stands a sentry from the Coldstream Guards.

35 Tower Hill, London EC3N 4DR, UK

27 Ten Trinity Square in London, England

The Port of London Authority was established in 1908 to regulate all transportation and the docks along the River Thames. In 1922, the Ten Trinity Square building on Tower Hill became the PLA’s headquarters. The neoclassical design by Sir Edwin Cooper features a statue of Old Father Thames in the center niche of the white, Portland stone façade. After the landmark suffered extensive bombing damage during World War II, it was converted into the offices of an insurance company. The property was acquired by the Reignwood Group in 2010. In early 2017, Ten Trinity Square reopened as luxury residences, hotel rooms and a club branded as Four Seasons. James Bond fans may recognize this as M16 from the 2012 Skyfall movie.

10 Trinity Square, London EC3N 4AJ, UK

28 St Paul’s Cathedral in London, England

After the Old St. Paul’s Cathedral from 1240 was destroyed during the Great Fire of London in 1666, prolific architect Sir Christopher Wren was hired to replace it. His English Baroque design features a lead-covered dome peaking at 365 feet. St Paul’s Cathedral was London’s tallest building for over 250 years beginning in 1711. The Anglican church’s position on Ludgate Hill makes it a prominent skyline landmark. Inside the cathedral have been numerous famous funerals, royal weddings and monarch jubilee celebrations. The mother church of the Diocese of London also survived WWII bombings and has been featured in a dozen films including Mary Poppins and two Harry Potter movies.

303 St. Paul's Churchyard, London EC4M 8BX, UK

29 Unilever House in London, England

Lever Brothers was a soap manufacturer founded in 1885. When co-founder William Lever died in 1925, it was one of the U.K.’s largest companies. After a merger in 1930, it was renamed Unilever. The Unilever House became the company’s headquarters in 1933. A unique feature of James Simpson’s Art Deco plus neoclassical design is the curved façade accented with sixteen Ionic columns facing the River Thames and Blackfriars Bridge.

100 Victoria Embankment, London EC4Y 0DY, UK

30 Royal Courts of Justice in London, England

The High Court and Court of Appeal for both England and Wales have conducted hearings inside of the Royal Courts of Justice since it opened in 1882. The imposing Gothic design is the work of architect George Edmund Street. The courthouse is open to the public. It is worth a walk inside the Law Courts to admire the intricately carved oak woodwork. You can also watch most trials in progress.

216 Strand, London WC2R 1AP, UK

31 Somerset House in London, England

The Somerset House derived its name from the palatial palace built on this site during the 16th century by Edward Seymour, the Duke of Somerset. After he was executed on Tower Hill in 1552, the estate was used by various queen consorts. Somerset Palace was demolished in 1775 to make way for this neoclassical government building designed by Sir William Chambers. Construction continued until 1819. Additional wings were added through 1856. After the building suffered damage during WWII, a renovation project by Sir Albert Richardson required 11 years to complete. Today, it houses an art and cultural center while the courtyard is a venue for summer concerts and a winter ice rink. The main entrance faces a boulevard called The Strand. This backside view is from across the River Thames.

Riverside Terrace, London WC2R 2AB, UK

32 Theatre Royal Drury Lane in London, England

Theatre Royal in Bridges Street was established on this site in 1663. After a fire in 1672, it was replaced with the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane two years later. The third theater opened in 1794 then was gutted by fire in 1809. The current Theatre Royal Drury Lane was designed by Benjamin Dean Wyatt and was finished in 1812. It was extensively renovated in 2013. The Drury specializes in staging musicals. This is not surprising. It is owned by Andrew Lloyd Webber, the famous composer and recipient of countless Academy, Grammy, Tony and Oliver Awards.

6 Catherine St, London WC2B, UK

33 Five Red Telephone Booths in London, England

The red telephone box evolved into an iconic symbol of the United Kingdom since Sir Giles Gilbert won a 1924 design competition. That earliest cast iron model was called Kiosk No. 2 or K2. The Tudor Crown feature was added in 1926. Five additional models were introduced before production of the public phone booth stopped in the mid-1980’s. Only about 11,000 of the total 314,000 telephone boxes remain in service. This row of K6s bearing the St Edward’s Crown are on Broad Street. Their primary purpose today is as a photo opportunity using – what else? – a mobile phone.

5 Broad Ct, London WC2B 5QH, UK

34 London Coliseum in London, England

Since the London Coliseum opened in 1904 based on the design of Frank Matcham, its capacity of over 2,300 seats has qualified as London’s largest theater. The venue began featuring a variety of performing arts then evolved into a cinema house during the 1960’s. In 1968, the building was purchased by the Sadler’s Wells Opera Company. Now named the English National Opera, it primarily stages operas and performances by the English National Ballet. London Coliseum is located on St. Martin’s Lane in London’s theater district.

St Martin's Ln, London WC2N 4ES, UK

35 London Underground’s Piccadilly Circus Station in London, England

Like most major cities, central London is geographically large and prone to congestion. This makes it difficult to see everything on foot and time consuming to use buses and taxis. Best advice: rely on the London Underground. Since becoming the world’s first underground train in 1863, The Tube has grown into a network of routes serving over one billion passengers a year. At first, the maps and labyrinth of hallways, stairs and platforms will be confusing. After a day or two, you will feel like a Londoner.

Piccadilly Circus Underground Station, London W1J 9HS, UK

36 Piccadilly Circus in London, England

Piccadilly Circus is London’s equivalent of Times Square in NYC. The intersection was created in 1819. The first giant sign was raised in 1908. Soon it was surrounded with flashing advertising using light bulbs and later neon. Now only this building has a LED billboard with a moving display. Coca-cola has been featured since 1954. The name Piccadilly is derived from piccadill, a high, lacy collar worn by royalty and the social elite during the late Renaissance period. Circus is from the Latin word circulus meaning hoop or ring.

Coventry St, London W1J 9HS, UK

37 Theatre Royal Haymarket in London, England

John Potter built the Hay Market theatre in 1720 just as the West End theatre district was beginning to emerge among the squalor on Haymarket street. The Little Theatre in the Hay struggled until 1729 but then was closed in 1737 for political censorship. The playhouse reopened in 1741. When Samuel Foote acquired a Royal Patent from King George III in 1767, it was renamed Theatre Royal Haymarket. The current structure designed by John Nash was finished in 1821. TRH has a reputation for staging classic plays and new productions.

71 Charles II St, St. James's, London SW1Y, UK

38 Trafalgar Square in London, England

Trafalgar Square was constructed in 1840 to celebrate the British victory at the Battle of Trafalgar against the Spanish and Napoleon Bonaparte’s French fleet. This naval skirmish occurred in 1805 as part of the War of the Third Coalition. The square was designed by Sir Charles Barry, the same architect responsible for the Houses of Parliament. In the foreground is a sculpture of mermaids, tritons and dolphins in a fountain created by Edwin Lutyens. In the background is the 1843 equestrian statue of King George IV by Francis Chantrey. The buildings from left to right are: the National Gallery (1938), St Martin-in-the-Fields (1726) and the South Africa House (1933).

5 Trafalgar Square, London WC2N 5NJ, UK

39 Landmark Buildings at Trafalgar Square in London, England

These are two of several landmarks surrounding Trafalgar Square. On the left is the National Gallery. William Wilkins’ Neoclassical design features a splendid dome and a portico supported by Corinthian columns. Inside is a collection of more than 2,300 paintings. The art museum hosts six million visitors annually. On the right is St Martin-in-the-Fields. The Anglican church was constructed in 1726 by architect James Gibbs. The impressive clock tower reaches a height of 192 feet.

5 Trafalgar Square, London WC2N 5NJ, UK

40 Fourth Plinth at Trafalgar Square in London, England

Trafalgar Square has several permanent statues, three of which are on large slabs. There was an additional pedestal that remained empty for decades. It is called the Fourth Plinth. Since 1995, it has been famous for exhibiting bold, attention-getting artwork on a rotating basis. Past sculptures include a 16.5 foot blue rooster, a child on a rocking horse, a female nude with no arms and Lord Nelson’s ship in a bottle. The most innovative, called “One & Other,” featured 2,400 people who took turns standing on the plinth 24/7 for 100 days. Since 2015, “Gift Horse” by Hans Haacke has been exhibited. On the ribbon is a London Stock Exchange tickertape.

5 Trafalgar Square, London WC2N 5NJ, UK

41 Memorials at Trafalgar Square in London, England

On the left is a bronze statue by George Cannon Adams of Sir Charles James Napier. The general was the Commander-in-Chief of the British army who ended a Muslim insurrection in India and then became the Governor of Sindh Province. This memorial was erected in 1856. In the center of Trafalgar Square is a 169 foot, Corinthian column surrounded by four bronze lions. It was designed by William Railton. The granite and bronze Nelson’s Column honors Horatio Nelson. The admiral was killed in 1805 while leading the British naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. In the background is the former Grand Hotel built in 1881. The structure has been commercial offices since 1990.

5 Trafalgar Square, London WC2N 5NJ, UK

42 Athenaeum Club at Waterloo Place in London, England

Waterloo Place is a large square in the St. James’s district constructed in 1828 to honor the defeat of Napoleon during the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Two buildings flank it borders. The most elaborate is the Athenaeum Club, a social club for intellectual men until women became eligible to join in 2002. The neoclassical façade designed by Decimus Burto features a white and blue frieze patterned after the Parthenon in Athens. Below this bas-relief is a gilded statute of Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom and the club’s namesake.

107 Pall Mall, St. James's, London SW1Y 5ER, UK

43 Britannia at Colin Campbell Memorial in London, England

During the 1st century, the Romans began attacking what today is the British Isles. They called the islands Britannia. Their successful conquest was symbolized by a goddess wearing military attire next to a reclining lion. This personification has been frequently used on statues and currency across the United Kingdom. This sculpture by Carlo Marochetti was erected at Waterloo Place in 1867 at the base of the Colin Campbell Memorial. 1st Baron Clyde was a field marshal in the British Army. Lord Clyde successfully lead campaigns during several wars including the War of 1812, the Crimean War and the Indian Munity.

Intersection Waterloo Place & Carlton House Terrace, London, UK

44 University of London Senate House in London, England

The University of London was founded in 1836. Today, the enrollment consists of over 16,000 graduate and undergraduate students. This 19 floor, Art Deco building designed by Charles Holden is the Senate House. It provides the offices for the vice chancellor, other administrative staff and the University of London Library and archives. Portions of the Senate House are also rented as a conference center.

Malet St, Bloomsbury, London WC1E, UK

45 Hotel Russell in London, England

The Hotel Russell was ultra lavish when the Frederick Hotels Company opened it in 1898. The building is constructed with terracotta called thé-au-lait. This means tea with milk. Across the façade are coats of arms of every nation existing during the Victoria Era. The Hotel Russell was designed by Charles Fitzoy Doll, a prolific hotel architect. He also created the dining room for the RMS Titanic. Above the entrance are statues of Queens Victoria, Elizabeth, Anne and Mary sculpted by Henry Charles Fehr. In 2017, this landmark reopened as The Principal London, a five-star hotel.

8 Russell Square, Bloomsbury, London WC1B 5BE, UK

46 Death of Dirce Sculpture outside Tate Britain in London, England

In Greek mythology, The Death of Dirce portrays the killing of the King of Thebes’ wife. The twins Amphion and Zethus bound Dirce to a wild bull in retaliation for mistreating their mother. The famous version of this scene is The Farnese Bull, a marble grouping carved in the 3rd century and unearthed in Rome in 1546. Sir Charles Lawes-Witteronge created his bronze interpretation in 1906. The artwork greets visitors to the Tate Britain, an impressive gallery of British art founded in 1897 by sugar magnate Henry Tate.

45 Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG, UK

47 St George Wharf in London, England

On the South Bank of the River Thames near the Vauxhall Bridge are over 1,100 apartments known as St George Wharf. The massive complex consists of 18 modern buildings designed by the architecture firm Broadway Malyan. The pinnacle is St George Wharf Tower. The residential skyscraper – the largest in the United Kingdom – has 52 floors, stands 594 feet and was finished in 2014. On top of the Vauxhall Tower is a five floor, 23,000 square foot penthouse.

50 Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RL, UK